A Have a look at 5 Science-Primarily based Questionnaires & Checks
Attachment types could be measured by way of numerous strategies, together with self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational assessments. In two latest meta-analyses, a number of devices have been evaluated on their psychometric properties (Justo‐Núñez et al., 2022; Ravitz et al., 2010).
Ravitz et al. (2010) examined 29 devices, together with interviews and self-report questions, that had been used to measure adults’ attachment types over the past 25 years. Of those, 11 have been discovered to have dependable psychometric properties and are beneficial to be used. In Justo‐Núñez et al. (2022), 24 self-reported devices have been evaluated, all of which have been self-reported measures.
How to decide on between instruments
No software is superior to the opposite. Deciding which software to make use of is as much as you and based mostly solely in your wants. A shorter software just like the Grownup Attachment Kinds is perhaps higher if time is restricted.
To measure the diploma of attachment, take into account the State Grownup Attachment Questionnaire. These instruments can be used as dialogue factors, during which case, a brief software just like the Relationships Questionnaire can be utilized to start out the dialogue.
Whereas these measures present priceless insights, numerous elements might affect particular person responses, and context issues when decoding the outcomes.
The evaluated instruments differ on a number of properties, listed beneath.
When choosing a selected check or measure, it’s important to contemplate its psychometric properties (Prepare dinner & Beckman, 2006). Though a number of psychometric properties exist (Prepare dinner & Beckman, 2006), a very powerful are validity (does the check measure what it says it does?) and reliability (are the check outcomes secure?).
Instruments with good psychometric properties can be utilized confidently in settings the place the findings is perhaps challenged, similar to in a courtroom of regulation, or are extraordinarily necessary, for instance in an academic setting.
Attachment: Class or a dimension
Checks differ on how attachment types are measured. Some measure it as a class, whether or not or not the shopper has a selected model, whereas others measure it as a dimension (Ravitz et al., 2010).
If you’d like a check that measures which model your shopper has, take into account a software that measures the class somewhat than the dimension. Ensure to analysis what kinds of classes (or dimensions) are measured inside the chosen software.
Checks differ based on relationship. For instance, the Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) evaluates the attachment model with romantic companions, whereas the Grownup Attachment Kinds is indiscriminate (Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
Be pragmatic about your software selection. Contemplate the questions’ wording and your shopper. For instance, a questionnaire about intimate, romantic relationships is just not acceptable for a kid.
Really useful scientific instruments
We now have solely highlighted just a few of the beneficial instruments on this publish, however the full checklist is within the cited manuscripts listed within the reference part.
Grownup Attachment Kinds
Probably the most extensively used software is the Grownup Attachment Kinds self-report questionnaire. It’s a single-item self-report measure the place shoppers are requested to select from three descriptions the one which finest corresponds to the present relationship (see Desk 2 in Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
The descriptions are the core elements of the next three attachment types described by Ainsworth et al. (1978): safe, avoidant, and anxious.
Because it incorporates just one query, this software is fast and straightforward to manage, however its reliability and validity are comparatively excessive. This software is finest suited as a place to begin for discussing attachment types somewhat than a diagnostic software. A replica of this questionnaire exists on the Fetzer Institute website.
A second software is the Relationships Questionnaire, which was developed by Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) in response to Hazan and Shaver (1987).
Bartholomew and Horowitz argue that attachment types ought to be thought of to be dimensions somewhat than classes. The Relationships Questionnaire solely includes 4 statements, every describing a special attachment model, and interviewees present the extent to which every assertion precisely describes their relationship with their associate on a scale from 1 to 7. Thus, the software measures attachment types as a dimension and class.
It’s simple and fast to manage and has been used extensively in printed analysis, however its reliability and validity may very well be increased. The statements are in Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) and the Fetzer Institute website.
Grownup Attachment Scale and Revised-Grownup Attachment Scale
The Grownup Attachment Scale is a self-report questionnaire that assesses grownup attachment types based mostly on Hazan and Shaver’s (1987) pioneering analysis right into a software to measure attachment types.
Collins and Learn (1990) had two goals: first, to handle some criticisms of Hazan and Shaver (1987), and second, so as to add extra nuanced questions. The Grownup Attachment Scale is an 18-item scale, utilizing a five-point Likert scale to measure every merchandise starting from 1 (by no means attribute) to five (very attribute).
These 18 objects measure one among three constructs: dependence, anxiousness, and closeness (see Desk 2 in Collins & Learn, 1990). Collins (1996) developed a revised model of the Grownup Attachment Scale, titled the Revised-Grownup Attachment Scale (RAAS).
The distinction between the Grownup Attachment Scale and the RAAS is the wording of 1 merchandise and the alternative of three objects to handle ambiguity and enhance reliability. These two instruments are appropriate for assessing shopper attachment types as a result of they’re broadly utilized in analysis and have good validity and reliability (Ravitz et al., 2010). The Grownup Attachment Scale can be out there for download.
Please be aware:
The Grownup Attachment Scale shouldn’t be confused with the Grownup Attachment Kinds self-report questionnaire mentioned beforehand. They’re completely different instruments.
State Grownup Attachment Questionnaire
The State Grownup Attachment Questionnaire (SAAM; Gillath et al., 2009) is a extra just lately developed questionnaire. Not like the earlier instruments that assumed that attachment types are secure, the SAAM additionally considers situational elements and the way these have an effect on reported attachment types.
The software includes 21 statements, which load (i.e., measure) onto three attachment types: safe, anxious, and avoidant. Every assertion is rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), and respondents should point out their diploma of settlement at present. The psychometric properties, similar to reliability and validity, are good (Gillath et al., 2009).
3 Attachment Model Quizzes & Scales
If a scientifically developed attachment model questionnaire is pointless, a number of quizzes exist on the net.
The primary quiz exists on the Attachment Project website. With the free quiz, the Attachment Undertaking supplies details about attachment types so readers can enhance their model and cease adverse generational patterns.
The quiz is cut up into completely different sections with Likert scale questions on:
- Maternal caregiver relationship
- Paternal caregiver relationship
- Romantic associate relationship
- Common attachment
The outcomes present a measurement for every of the 4 query varieties and an total consequence about attachment model. These detailed outcomes are helpful to know whether or not your shopper has various attachment types for every relationship kind. The questionnaire scoring is just not freely out there, and it should be accomplished on-line.
The Stonybrook Attachment Theory and Research Website is a good useful resource for clinicians concerned with attachment concept. You will see details about workshops and coaching analysis papers, movies, and a listing of questionnaires and scales appropriate for kids, youngsters, and adults.